Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust Industrial Report
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Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust Industrial Report

Faculty Guide: Prof. Gayatri and Prof. Shweta
JNPT spokesperson: Mr. Ravi Garath

By Operations and SCM Batch (2019-21)

Vision
To become the premier container port of South Asia.

Mission
To be equipped with state-of-the-art technology, efficiency and manpower which are at par with the international standards.
To conform to international standards and offer cost-effective integrated logistics solutions.
Ensure security and safety of life, equipment and cargo.
Pursue the principles of eco-friendly sustainable development.
Constantly upgrade the competence, awareness, skills and motivation of port personnel for continual improvement in all efficiency parameters.

Introduction:
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) at Navi Mumbai (formerly known as the Nhava Sheva Port) is India’s No. 1 container port handling more than half of the container cargo across all major ports in India. Commissioned on 26th May 1989, by then PM Rajiv Gandhi, JNPT occupies a prominent place among the most modern ports in India and is ranked 28th among the top 100 container Ports in the world. JNPT has a total SEZ area of 2584 hectares. Here the depth of sea level is 14.5m, it is also known as a natural port.
Initially, this Port was planned to be a ‘satellite port’ to the Mumbai Port with a purpose to decongest traffic. In the pre- reform days, Mumbai port faced a lot of issues like shallowness of the channel, congestion on roads and railways through the Mumbai city linking the port to its hinterland, as well as labour problems. However, over the next three decades JNPT systematically evolved its operational efficiency and improved its capacity handling to transform itself into a Port at par with global standards.
The annual container volume of JNPT is 5.05 million TEU (twenty feet equivalent volume). Maximum loading value per ship is 12500 TEU. Here the loading and un-loading of goods or containers are done by huge machinery which are known as RMQC (RAIL MOUNTED QUAY CRAINS). There are 3 operations done in port namely vessel operation, yard operation and ICD (inland control drain).

How ship enters port:

This is where key operations of port are done. Every ship that comes to JNPT port gives an ETA to port. The control room is contacted 3-4 hours before reaching port. The control room is equipped with ship movement control system which manages the vessel traffic. There are 3 radars which captures the echo from the incoming ship. The radars are in Colaba, Nhava Sheva and Jawahar dweep. Every ship which comes to JNPT stays at 30 kms from the port which is known as anchorage area. JNPT has two anchorage area Bravo east and Bravo west. From there captain of the ship contacts the J.N.P.T port control room and after finishing every verification protocol, JNPT authorities will reserve a slot for docking the ship. Every ship must have an AI (automatic identification) system installed which gives all the information about the ship to the control room. Meanwhile pilots from JNPT will go to ship and guide the ship to JNPT’s channels. When ship is 500 meters away i.e. when it crosses the Bombay port limit, the docking engines gets stopped and tugboats come into action. Tugboats are special boats used to pull/push the ship will be connected to TUGBOATS for safe placing or docking of ships without any damage, this where acceleration and deceleration concepts of science comes into play. TUG is written on the ship, and only on that place is the tugboat allowed to push the ship so as avoid any damages. There are special boats called Drazzers, which helps to clear the path i.e. if there is any big rock in the way or if there are any sea plants growing, it clears them all so that the ship can move freely. 

Now once the ship reaches the port, necessary verifications of the ship crew (Passport and Visa) and the containers are done. Documents verifications are taken care by CUSTOMS department and 3PL (3rd party logistics) people also known as agents. There are 3 cranes allotted for each ship that enters the port. Special scanning of the containers is done which belongs to countries that has a bad relationship with India.

After all these processes, the containers are unloaded from the ship with the help of RMQCs and placed on trucks or trains which then takes the containers to its desired location. Every day 31 trains are loaded with containers which takes them to 36 cities. 

 

Traffic Department:

This department plays crucial role in planning and scheduling of port that is also called vessel profit monitoring through VTM (Vessel traffic management). Basically, they work on electronic map which works on radar. They calculate ETA for shipment given by dock master.

Charges:

For the process of docking and operations J.N.P.T charges ₹2,01,500. (even return charges of ship are included)

Tugboat and Pilot charges – ₹3,65,000 

Berthing charges- ₹7000 / hour

Storage of container charges: 1 TEU = ₹2210 /3 days (For Indian containers the charges are 40% less for 3 days).

Plugging system for refrigeration = extra 140₹ per hour

If the payment of storage of container is not done for 40 days, the container is sent for auction by customs department.

Ports in JNPT:

There are three terminals in JNPT:

  1. Nhava Sheva international container terminal (NSICT): It was commissioned in the year 2000. It is operated by P&O ports of Australia, which is now a part of DP world, which is a global port operator of Dubai. The port is on lease and the time period is 30 years. It offers a total quay length of 600m along with a sea depth of 14.5m. It can handle up to 14.60 lakhs TEUs of cargo supported by 8 RMQCs. 
  2. Jawahar Lal Nehru Port Container Terminal (JNPCT): It is JNPT’s own container terminal. It has a quay length of 680m and 9 RMQCs. Its capacity increased to 11.7 lakhs TEU in 2018.
  3. Gateway Terminal of India: Gateway Terminals India (GTI) is a joint venture between APM Terminals and the Container Corporation of India Ltd (CONCOR). Incorporated in July 2004, GTI operates the third container terminal at Jawaharlal Nehru Port and has a capacity of 20.77 lakhs TEUs supported by 10 RMQCs.
  4. There is and additional liquid cargo jetty which was awarded to Bharat petroleum limited and Indian Oil Corporation limited. Its operation commenced from Oct 2002 and has a capacity of 3.34 lakhs TEUs. From this terminal only import process is done. Crude oil and natural gases are directly transferred to its desired location through pipelines.

Profit: 

In the year 2018 JNPT earned a profit of ₹11000 crore.

Security:

Details of the journey

All the students of operations and RMM reached the campus at 0830 hrs. The college had booked two buses for the visit. At sharp 0900 hours we started our journey. At about 1000 hrs. we reached JNPT. All the formalities took 1-1.5 hrs. After the checking was over, we were allotted a guide. We went first straight to the port where there was already a loading process was going on. The guide explained us the operations of the port and cleared all our doubts. Next we went to control room to understand how the vessel traffics are controlled by JNPT. Mr. Nikhil Thakur explained us about the Vessel traffic management system. At around 1430 hrs. we went to have our lunch and after lunch we started our journey back to college.

Conclusion

In the industrial visit to J.N.P.T, we got practical knowledge about the working of a port. We also learned how a container is loaded to a ship, transported via sea way, unloaded from the ship and delivery to the consumers. Thus, we got a complete insight of supply chain management and logistics in our visit to J.N.P.T.